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Johnsing

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小议虚拟语气  

2008-12-19 23:06:50|  分类: 他山之石 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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湖北省当阳一中英语组  刘红丹

 

在湖北省以往的英语高考试卷中,虚拟语气这一语法项目一般出现在“单项选择”试题中,但随着高考的改革,近年来我省的单项选择题已经侧重于考查词语辨析及词语基本用法,而把语法项目的考点转化为“完成句子”这种新的题型,更强调考查学生驾驭句子结构的能力。请看2007年湖北高考英语卷第40题:

It is possible that the king of Stonehenge was linked to the stones: he ______(可能参与) in planning the monument, or in helping transport and pull up the stones. (hand)

虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议,而不表示客观存在的事实,虚拟语气是通过句中谓语动词的特殊形式来体现的。

1If从句结构的归纳

情况

虚拟条件句

主句

与现在事实相反

If +主语+动词的过去式did

be动词用were

主语+would / should / could / might + do

eg : If I were you , I would work hard at English. 如果我是你,我就努力学英语。

与过去事实相反

If+主语+过去完成式

had done

主语+would / should / could + might + had done.

ef: If you had worked hard, you would have got high scores in the mid-term examination.

  如果你过去努力学习,你就可以在这次的期中考试中获得好成绩。

与将来事实相反

①If +主语+动词的过去式

②If +主语+were to do

③If +主语+should do

主语+would / should / could / might +do

eg: If I should earn 50, 000 / were to earn / earned 50,000 a year. I would buy many presents for my son. 如果我将来可以挣5万元一年,我就可以为我儿子买更多的礼物。

2、三种特例:

a. 混合虚拟语气:条件状语从句和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致,它要求主从句的谓语形式要根据它所表示的实际时间做出相应的调整。

eg: If you had followed my advice, you would get better scores.

   如果你过去听从我的建议,你将取得更好的成绩。

eg: If you were to master English, you should have worked hard at it.

 如果你打算精通英语,你过去就应该努力学习。

b. 倒装虚拟语气:条件句中有should, hadwere时,可以把should, had were 放到主语之前,省略if.

eg: Had you worked hard (= If I had worked hard), you would have surely succeeded. 如果你过去努力学习,你就一定会成绩。

eg: If it were not for the high pay=were it not for the high pay, I would go to another company.  如果不是为了高工资,我就会去另外的公司。

如果省略的条件句中的谓语动词是否定形式时,不能用动词的缩略形式,即不能前置not.

c. 隐含虚拟语气:有时假设的条件不是通过条件从句表达出来,而是通过语境体现或隐含在某些词汇或短语中,eg: without , with, but for, otherwise, or , but .

介词:with, without=but for.

eg: With your help, we might finish the work earlier.

   如果有你的帮助,我们可能会早点完成工作。

   Without water, there would be no life.

 没有水,就没有生命。

连词:or, otherwise, but

eg: She would have come here , but she was too busy with her homework.

   她本来早就要到这里来,但是她当时太忙于写作业了。

   He was very busy yesterday, otherwise, he would have come to the party.

 他昨天太忙了,否则的话,他就会来参加聚会了。

3、虚拟语气用于各种从句。

在主语从句中的应用

eg: It’s important / necessary / strange / natural that + (should) +do

   It’s / was requested / advised / ordered / proposed / suggested / required / decided + that + (should) +do

It is a pity that + (should) +do

eg: It’s suggested that one ( should ) take plenty of boiled water every day.

   建议一个人每天应喝足量的冷开水。

  It’s necessary that we should clean the classroom every day.

我们有必要每天打扫房间。

   It is a pity that she (should ) live so hard. 她竟过得那么难,真可怜。

宾语从句中的应用

1wish +宾从,表不能实现的愿望,意为可惜…”“就好了”“但愿表现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去式 did

将来               would / could + do

过去               had +done would / could have done.

eg: I wish I were as strong as you. 我真希望像你一样强壮。

2)在表示命令、建议,要求的宾从中,用(should+ do

一个坚持insist   两个命令 order, commard

三条建议 advise, suggest, propose  四项要求 demand, require, request ask

补充:recommend , desire .

eg: The teacher requires that we (should) study hard.老师要求我们应努力学习。

   The doctor ordered that she ( should ) stay in bed for a few days. 

医生要求她卧床几天。

Suggest   暗示 / 表明 不加虚拟

         建议 + 虚拟

Insist     坚决要求  + 虚拟

         坚持某种看法或主张 + 陈述语气(不加虚拟)

3would rather + 宾从  + did 对现在/将来虚拟 表想要”“宁愿某人

                       + had done 对过去……

Eg: I would rather you hadn’t said that. 宁愿你没那么说

   I would rather you came to my birthday party tomorrow.

 我想要你明天来参加我的生日聚会。

在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用

advice, idea, order, demand, plan, proposal, suggestion, request等表示命令建议要求的名词的表语从句和同位语从句中,其谓语动词用 should+do

eg: We all agreed to his suggestion that we ( should ) go to Beijing for sightseeing.

  我们都同意他去北京观光的建议。

English teachers give advice that every student ( should ) make full use of time to study English. 英语老师建议每个学生都应充分利用时间去学英语。

as if / though 引导的表语从句或状语从句中,用过去时构成虚拟即

对过去的虚拟  had done

对现在的虚拟  did

对将来的虚拟    would do

eg: He speaks English so flecently as is he had studied English in England.

 她讲英语这么流利,好像他在英国学过英语似的。

但如果从句中陈述的是真实的情况,则用一般时态即该用什么时态就用什么时态。

It looks as if it is going to rain. 似乎要下雨了。

⑤ 特殊句型

1It is ( high) time (that)    should do (should 一定不能省)

                           过去时态     对现在  did

                                        过去    had done

eg: It is high time we    should leave  我们该离开了

                     left

2If only从句

意为如果就好了,但愿只单独用于if从句,加强条件意味。

eg: If only I had knew you early.  如果我早点认识你就好了。

   对现在 / 将来  +  did

     过去        + had done

4、解题要点:

1)准确分析题干的时间,即对什么时间的虚拟

2)对于倒装的虚拟,做题时首先要将其恢复到正常语序,搞清楚其主句和从句。

3)考查虚拟语气一般的设题特点是给了一定的语境,选择虚拟,语气的谓语动词的构成。

所谓虚拟语气的逆向思维考查是指题干已给出虚拟语气的形式,选择虚拟语气的生成条件或选择陈述语气的时态。

— Which place shall Tom go to for his holiday?

—I _____ he go to Beijing , the capital of China. (A)

 A. suggest         B. hope            C. wish            D. prefer

虚拟语气是高中阶段比较重要的语法,也是学生不容易掌握的,所以在教学中务必切记以句型教学为主,尤其是if从句的三种句型,即对现在、过去及将来的假设的固定句型,还要注意一些虚拟语气中的特殊句型eg: It is (high) time that …, I would rather that…, It seems/looks as if 以及情态动词+have done 表本可以做而事实上未做的虚拟句型与情态动must / cannot /could not /may(not)+have done 表过去发生的事情的推理之间的区别,这是学生最容易混淆的地方。

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